The sculpture above is called “The Dying Gaul.” It was commissioned by the Roman state in 230 B.C to commemorate their victory over the Gauls. A major aspect of Roman history is the conflict between the “civilized” Romans and the “barbarian” peoples that they encountered. Throughout their history, from kingdom to Republic to Empire, the Romans encountered a variety of peoples whom they classified as “barbarian” due to their supposedly primitive and warlike characters, which included Samnites, Germans, Iberians, Britons, Dacians, and above all, the Gauls. The Gauls were the Celtic peoples who inhabited the land that is modern day France. They lacked an urban culture due to their tribal based society, and were very aggressive in nature. The end of the 8th century witnessed a massive migration of Celtics peoples from their traditional homelands in central Europe towards the fringes of the Mediterranean world, such as Asia Minor, the Balkans, and northern Italy. The Gauls of northern Italy, inhabiting the Po River valley, became known as the “Cisalpine” Gauls, and to their south were their Etruscan and Roman neighbors. Their aggressive and tribal nature instilled fear and awe in the native Italians. In 390 B.C, the Cisalpine Gauls under their chieftain Brennus defeated a Roman army and sacked the city of Rome for the first time in its history.